Rafael Nadal, delivering stability in a year of chaos, wins his 13th French Open title.

Credit…Pool photo by Graeme Jennings

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the U.S. government’s top infectious disease expert and one of the nation’s most popular public officials, took issue Sunday with a decision by the Trump campaign to feature him in an advertisement without his consent and said it had misrepresented his comments.

“I was totally surprised,” Dr. Fauci said. “The use of my name and my words by the G.O.P. campaign was done without my permission, and the actual words themselves were taken out of context, based on something that I said months ago regarding the entire effort of the task force.”

CNN first reported Dr. Fauci’s displeasure with the campaign ad.

The spot seeks to use Mr. Trump’s illness with Covid-19 and apparent recovery to improve the negative image many Americans have of his handling of the coronavirus.

“I can’t imagine that anybody could be doing more,” the ad shows Dr. Fauci saying — though in fact he was talking about the broader government effort.

Dr. Fauci, who said he had never publicly endorsed a political candidate in decades of public work, has long had an uneasy relationship with President Trump. Just a little over a week ago, he clashed with his boss over his position on mask-wearing.

In his debate with former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., Mr. Trump claimed that Dr. Fauci had initially said “masks are not good — then he changed his mind.” When Mr. Biden said wearing masks could save tens of thousands of lives, Mr. Trump contended that “Dr. Fauci said the opposite.”

In fact, in the early days of the pandemic, Dr. Fauci and other health experts discouraged the general public from rushing out to buy masks because they were worried about shortages for health workers. Their position changed when it became clear that asymptomatic transmission was spreading the virus.

Dr. Fauci may favor measured language, but his criticisms of the White House — and, implicitly, the man in the Oval Office — over the handling of the pandemic have not gone unnoticed — including by hard-core Trump supporters who claim he is part of a “deep state” conspiracy to undermine the president.

On Friday, Dr. Fauci called the White House ceremony announcing Judge Amy Coney Barrett’s nomination to the Supreme Court a “superspreader event.”

“It was in a situation where people were crowded together and not wearing masks,” he said. “The data speak for themselves.”

Dr. Fauci remains highly popular with the American public, a fact that appears to have made a big impression on Mr. Trump.

Given the clashes with the temperamental leader, and after some White House officials began a campaign to discredit Dr. Fauci, speculation swirled that his time as one of the leaders in the pandemic fight might be running out, even if the president can’t fire him directly because he is not a political appointee.

On Sunday, Mr. Trump sounded unperturbed by the health official’s protests about the ad.

“They are indeed Dr. Fauci’s own words,” Mr. Trump said on Twitter.

Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

President Trump said in an interview on Fox News on Sunday that he was taking “pretty routine” medicine to treat his coronavirus infection, though some of his treatments were aggressive and experimental, and added that he was immune and now “totally free of spreading” the virus.

When he repeated the claim that he was immune and unable to spread the virus on Twitter, the platform added a label saying that the tweet violated Twitter’s rules about spreading misleading and potentially harmful information related to Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus.

The president spoke about his treatments with Maria Bartiromo on Fox’s “Sunday Morning Futures,” adding that he was prepared to resume campaign travel on Monday, when he has a rally planned in Florida.

“The medications that I took were standard, pretty routine,” Mr. Trump said. In fact, he received cutting-edge combination treatment: remdesivir, an antiviral medication; dexamethasone, a steroid only recently shown to reduce death rates in severe cases; and an experimental cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, designed to turn back the virus shortly after infection.

Mr. Trump insisted that he was now immune to the virus. “It does give you immunity,” the president said, although he acknowledged it’s unclear for how long.

Scientists do not yet fully understand how long immunity to the coronavirus may last following an infection, nor how strong it may be.

Mr. Trump pointed out that he was on a balcony for an event on Saturday at the White House attended by a few hundred people who gathered on the South Lawn, and therefore posed little threat of infecting others.

“I think on the whole, it is probably a safe assumption he is no longer contagious,” Dr. Scott Gottlieb, former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, said on the CBS program “Face the Nation” on Sunday, citing some of the data released about the president’s test results.

“I think the question now is, has his health been restored?” Dr. Gottlieb said. “And we know that a lot of patients have lingering effects from Covid.”

Mr. Trump tried to raise questions about whether his opponent in the upcoming presidential election, former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., could be sick, claiming he had been coughing “horribly” yesterday.

The Biden campaign released results of the candidate’s coronavirus testing, which so far are negative. The White House has declined to do for the president, even in a doctor’s memo on Saturday declaring him no longer at risk of transmitting the virus.

Credit…Brendan Mcdermid/Reuters

There is not nearly enough of the experimental Covid-19 drug that President Trump called a “cure” after receiving it — and promised to distribute for free — to treat the many Americans who may need it, the chief executive of Regeneron, the drug’s maker, said on Sunday.

Currently, there are enough doses of the drug to treat 50,000 patients, the company has said. There were more than 51,000 new infections reported in the United States on Saturday alone, according to a New York Times database.

“We have to figure out ways to ration this,” said Dr. Leonard S. Schleifer, the co-founder and chief executive of Regeneron, on CBS’s “Face the Nation.”

He said that the company was still in discussions with the administration about who might be first to receive the monoclonal antibodies and when. The treatment has not been approved by the F.D.A., but the White House is pushing the agency to grant an emergency use authorization and speed the drug to market.

Dr. Scott Gottlieb, the former head of the Food and Drug Administration, also on the program, noted a resurgence of coronavirus outbreaks in the Midwest and Northeastern states, and faulted the Trump administration for failing to ramp up manufacturing of potential treatments last spring.

Monoclonal antibodies have long seemed promising, he added. “It is too late for this year,” Dr. Gottlieb said. “We can take steps now to do it in 2021.”

Mr. Trump touted the treatment as a “cure” for Covid-19 in a video last week, in which he extolled the benefits he felt after receiving it. But it is impossible to know whether or to what extent the drug may be responsible for his apparent recovery.

Both Mr. Trump and Mark Meadows, the White House chief of staff, called Dr. Stephen Hahn, the F.D.A. commissioner, several days ago to urge that the agency approve the treatment quickly. Eli Lilly, which also makes an antibody treatment, has applied for emergency authorization as well.

Dr. Hahn told Mr. Trump that the agency’s scientists must fully review the data before approval, according to an F.D.A. official.

Credit…Mark Abramson for The New York Times

The New York City authorities cracked down over the weekend on some of the city’s coronavirus hot spots, issuing more than 60 summonses and tens of thousands of dollars in fines to people, businesses and houses of worship that did not follow newly imposed restrictions on gatherings or were found violating mask and social-distancing requirements.

Among those issued a summons by the New York City sheriff were a restaurant and at least five houses of worship in the city’s “red zones,” where infection rates are the highest. Each of those locations was given a summons that could result in up to $15,000 in fines, said Sheriff Joseph Fucito.

In total, officials issued 62 tickets and more than $150,000 in fines during the first weekend the new restrictions were in effect, the city said on Sunday.

New York is wrestling with its most acute pandemic crisis since the virus first swept through the five boroughs in March. City and state officials say that large gatherings and lax social distancing have been causing a surge in new cases in pockets of Brooklyn and Queens, many of them in Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods.

The spike prompted Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo to issue new restrictions on large gatherings and nonessential businesses in some parts of the city. Some religious leaders expressed staunch opposition to the crackdown.

The moment has set an already anxious city on edge, particularly as doctors, experts and health officials express growing concern about a second wave of the virus this winter. It also foreshadows the challenges city officials may face as they try to quash emerging hot spots in small communities before the virus can spread into the rest of the city.

Credit…James Estrin/The New York Times

Obese Americans are more likely to become dangerously ill if they are infected with the new coronavirus. Now public health officials are warning that a much broader segment of the population also may be at risk: Even moderately excess weight may increase the odds of severe disease.

The warning, reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention last week, may have serious implications. The World Health Organization says excess weight is a problem around the world, affecting 1.9 billion people in 2016.

In the United States, about 40 percent of U.S. adults are obese, and another 32 percent are simply overweight — rates that are among the world’s highest and mean that nearly three-quarters of Americans may be at increased risk of severe Covid-19 if infected.

“It’s important to make sure the public and individuals are aware of this potential risk,” said Dr. Brook Belay, a medical officer at the C.D.C.

Other medical conditions for which there is limited or mixed evidence of increased Covid-19 severity include asthma, cerebrovascular disease and cystic fibrosis, the C.D.C. said. Medical conditions clearly shown to increase the risk of Covid-19 include cancer, chronic kidney disease, heart disease and sickle cell disease, among others.

Doctors observed early on in the pandemic that excess weight appeared to pose an extra risk to patients. But since obesity is often accompanied by other medical problems, it took some time for researchers to learn whether excess fat, in and of itself, was the culprit. Many studies now indicate that it may be, at least in some patients.

Adipose tissue — the fat accumulated by the body — is itself biologically active, causing metabolic changes and abnormalities. Adipose promotes a state of chronic low-grade inflammation in the body, even without an infection.

In addition, abdominal obesity — which is more common in men — may cause compression of the diaphragm, lungs and chest cavity, restricting breathing and making it more difficult to clear pneumonia and other respiratory infections

Credit…Thomas Coex/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The coronavirus is roaring back across much of Europe, where countries are reporting daily infection numbers comparable to — and sometimes far beyond — those of the pandemic’s first peaks.

France, which has placed Paris and five other cities on maximum alert, reported 26,896 new infections on Saturday, a record daily high. The country reported 20,000 cases the day before, and as of Saturday had averaged 16,000 daily cases over the previous week.

Daily cases in France have risen 32 percent over the past two weeks, and daily deaths are up 14 percent, according to a New York Times database.

Britain, which recorded over 15,000 cases on Saturday, is expected to announce a new plan on Monday that would rank areas in tiers; places where the virus is spreading would require tighter restrictions.

The nation is at a “tipping point,” Jonathan Van-Tam, Britain’s deputy chief medical officer, said Sunday. “This time is different,” he said, “as we are now going into the colder, darker winter months.”

In Spain, the regions of Catalonia and Navarra ordered new restrictions on Sunday after the government used emergency powers on Friday to enforce a partial lockdown in the Madrid area — despite protests from the region’s leaders. The country reported over 12,000 new cases on Friday, and its seven-day average of daily deaths has risen 14 percent.

Even Germany, much praised for its testing and contact-tracing capabilities, reported a record 8,000 new infections on Saturday, by far its highest single-day number. But the country’s seven-day average of new daily cases remains far below its spring peak of almost 5,600.

Chancellor Angela Merkel said on Friday that more restrictive measures would follow local ones, including a curfew of 11 p.m. on bars in some places, if infections did not slow in urban hot spots.

“We will go back to partying, to having fun without corona restrictions,” she said. “But right now, other things are more important.”

Credit…Abir Sultan/EPA, via Shutterstock

The Israeli military began treating civilian coronavirus patients for the first time on Sunday, deploying to an overstrained hospital in the port city of Haifa and opening two Covid-19 wards in a previously unused fortified underground facility.

The move is another expansion of the military’s contribution to the country’s fight against the virus. The civil defense force has been running “coronavirus hotels” where infected people can isolate themselves and providing food to hard-hit areas. In August, the force formed a task force, headed by a decorated major general, to expand testing and contact tracing, and to offer local logistical assistance.

Israel has been under a second national lockdown since mid-September, after its daily coronavirus infection and death rates soared to among the highest in the world. The infection rate has begun to decline in recent days, from a peak of 9,000 daily confirmed cases to under 4,000.

About 100 doctors, nurses and paramedics from the Israel Defense Force’s medical corps are joining civilian staff to operate the two Covid-19 wards beneath the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa. Wearing ordinary hospital scrubs under their masks and gowns, officials said that they would be indistinguishable to patients from the civilian medical staff.

Rambam’s fortified facility was constructed in 2014. Located 16.5 meters, or about 54 feet, underground in a space that doubles as a parking lot, it was designed as an emergency hospital that could withstand chemical, biological and conventional attacks during wartime.

The new wards will initially have the capacity to treat a few dozen patients who are not in need of ventilation, according to Col. Dr. Noam Fink, the military’s deputy chief medical officer. The first two patients were admitted on Sunday.

Israeli hospitals have so far managed to cope with the coronavirus crisis, but Dr. Avi Weissman, the deputy manager of the Haifa hospital, said that the caseload had forced hospital staff to be pulled from other departments and that close to a third of the elective surgeries the hospital would ordinarily perform had been delayed.

Global Roundup

Credit…Niranjan Shrestha/Associated Press

Nepal, a country of 30 million people sandwiched between India and China, is enmeshed in a public health crisis.

Coronavirus infections have surpassed 100,000, about a third of which are currently active. That is a modest caseload compared with neighboring India, which is second the world in total infections, but more than the 94,000 cases reported in Nepal’s other neighbor of more than a billion people, China, where the virus first emerged late last year.

Cases in Nepal are increasing sharply, with a record 5,008 new infections recorded on Saturday. The Health Ministry counts fewer than 400 patients in intensive care, but even that has left I.C.U.s overflowing. Frontline doctors have also been infected, raising fears that health institutions’ staffing will be hollowed out.

To avoid system collapse, the government has asked Covid-19 patients to stay in home isolation — with the possibility of imprisonment if they venture outside — and to go to hospitals only if their condition turns critical. Almost 16,000 infected patients are in home isolation, according to the Health Ministry, and more than 11,000 others are in institutional isolation or hospitals.

But by the time infected people become seriously ill, it may be too late. Dr. Rabindra Pandey, a public health expert, said that some patients had died in ambulances while searching for I.C.U. beds, others in home isolation, and still others while waiting for I.C.U. beds in isolation wards. More than 600 people have died in Nepal since the pandemic began, a relatively low death rate but one that is likely to rise since the explosion in cases was so recent.

“We are already in critical condition in terms of controlling coronavirus,” Dr. Pandey said. “But darker days are yet to come.”

On Sunday, health experts warned that if the virus continued to spread in the countryside it would be impossible for the health care system to handle the influx of cases. Most facilities are in Kathmandu, the capital, which is the center of the country’s outbreak.

The situation has raised alarm about two major approaching festivals. During Dashain, a 15-day Hindu and Buddhist festival that takes place later this month, Nepalis living abroad and the country’s urbanites normally travel to villages in the mountains and plains to see relatives. Similar celebrations take place during Tihar, a five-day Hindu festival that is akin to the Diwali festival of lights in India and that falls next month.

The Health Ministry has urged Nepalis not to go out for Dashain shopping and to keep their distance from older people, even if it means canceling holiday plans.

In other global developments:

  • The Solomon Islands has recorded its second coronavirus infection, Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare said Sunday. Both infected people are students who were on the same repatriation flight from the Philippines in late September; the first case was announced on Oct. 3. The two students are asymptomatic and in isolation. Mr. Sogavare said there would be no national lockdown but that all repatriation flights would be suspended.

  • Iran surpassed 500,000 cases on Sunday and recorded a record 251 deaths. Two of the country’s vice presidents, Mohammad Bagher Nobakht and Ali Akbar Salehi — who is also Iran’s nuclear chief — are the latest senior officials to test positive for the virus, the semiofficial Tasnim news agency reported.

  • Greece recorded a record 13 deaths on Sunday. New rules limiting the number of people allowed in restaurants, museums and archaeological sites go into effect on Monday in Athens and other parts of the country with high infection rates.

  • In South Korea, masks will be mandatory in public starting on Tuesday in an apparent effort to keep the coronavirus at bay as social distancing measures are eased. After a 30-day grace period, people over age 14 who fail to wear masks could be fined as much as 100,000 won, or $87. Social-distancing measures are down to their lowest level as of Monday as a second outbreak of infections appears to wane. Nightclubs, bars and karaoke parlors are allowed to reopen and spectators are allowed back into sports stadiums. South Korea reported 97 new cases on Monday, slightly higher than the increase most days last week.

  • New Zealand on Monday announced its first deal for a potential coronavirus vaccine, agreeing to buy 1.5 million doses from the American pharmaceutical company Pfizer and the German biotechnology company BioNTech if their candidate succeeds. Officials did not say how much it cost to buy the vaccine, which could be available early next year. With each person expected to require two doses, there would be enough to inoculate 750,000 of New Zealand’s five million people. Megan Woods, the research minister, said that the government was in negotiations with other drug makers and that there would be more announcements next month.

  • Hanan Ashrawi, a high-ranking Palestine Liberation Organization official and negotiator, tested positive for Covid-19, her office announced on Sunday. Ms. Ashrawi, 74, tested positive days after Saeb Erekat, another veteran Palestinian negotiator, was confirmed to have contracted the virus.

  • India edged closer to overtaking the United States in total virus cases, passing the seven-million mark. And Brazil became the second country, also after the United States, to record more than 150,000 deaths.

  • A curfew in Berlin closed bars and restaurants at 11 p.m. on Saturday, curbing the German capital’s renowned nightlife. Berlin was following in the footsteps of Frankfurt, where a curfew had already been imposed, but starting an hour earlier.

  • Lebanon will close bars and nightclubs indefinitely to help contain the virus, Reuters reported. The virus has killed more than 450 people in a country reeling from financial crisis and an explosion in the capital, Beirut, two months ago.

  • The president of French Polynesia tested positive for the virus two days after meeting in Paris with the president of France, Emmanuel Macron, according to the French newspaper Le Monde. The office of President Edouard Fritch said in a statement that he was tested after he returned to Tahiti and complained of fever and pain.

Credit…Oliver Contreras for The New York Times

The White House continued to express optimism on Sunday that a stimulus package could be signed before Election Day, even as Senate Republicans panned the idea of passing another multitrillion-dollar relief bill and President Trump and Speaker Nancy Pelosi traded blame for the impasse.

Larry Kudlow, the director of the National Economic Council, suggested that skeptical Senate Republicans would follow President Trump’s lead if Ms. Pelosi and Steven Mnuchin, the treasury secretary, could reach a deal.

“If an agreement can be reached, they will go along with it,” Mr. Kudlow said on CNN.

Mr. Kudlow’s remarks, however, seemed to be starkly at odds with the sentiment expressed by many Senate Republicans, who dashed hopes that the White House’s $1.8 trillion offer would have sufficient support in their party in a conference call on Saturday.

In a letter to her Democratic colleagues on Sunday, Ms. Pelosi said Republicans were once again at odds over their own position, and she continued to hammer away at the White House for what she called a “wholly insufficient” proposal for greater testing, contact tracing and treatment.

“Until these serious issues are resolved, we remain at an impasse,” she wrote. “However, I remain hopeful that the White House will join us to work toward a relief package that addresses the health and economic crisis facing America’s families and will do so soon.”

But Mr. Trump, who abruptly halted talks last week before reversing his position to demand a large package, claimed on Sunday that Ms. Pelosi of California remained the sole impediment to the legislation.

“Republicans want to do it — we’re having a hard time with Nancy Pelosi,” Mr. Trump said on Sunday, speaking on Fox News. “We’re ready to go. We’re all ready to go. We can’t get Nancy Pelosi to sign the documents.”

It was unclear what documents he was referring to.

Republicans senators have expressed some support for smaller, targeted legislation to help stricken industries. And in a letter to Congress on Sunday, Mr. Mnuchin and Mark Meadows, the White House chief of staff, called on lawmakers to approve a bill that would repurpose funds from the lapsed Paycheck Protection Program as negotiations continued. (Democrats have previously rejected passing piecemeal legislation instead of a broad, comprehensive package.)

“This all-or-nothing approach is an unacceptable response to the American people,” the two men wrote.

The president has been largely ignoring those concerns, saying on Friday that he wants a stimulus package that is larger than what Democrats or Republicans have proposed.

Asked on Sunday if Mr. Mnuchin would in fact be proposing a package that would cost more than $2 trillion, Mr. Kudlow paused and said, “He may.”

Despite the uncertain path to getting anything passed in the next three weeks, Mr. Kudlow insisted that the economic recovery was on track and that Democrats were to blame if nothing got done.

“I think if we could get this thing settled on a Democrat side, we will get it settled on the Republican side,” Mr. Kudlow said, adding that negotiations would continue.

Credit…Pete Marovich for The New York Times

As President Trump continued to trail by double digits in polls, several of his surrogates tried on Sunday to shift attention away from the details of his coronavirus infection and his administration’s handling of the pandemic.

In interviews on the morning talk shows, the president’s son Eric Trump; his daughter-in-law, Lara Trump; and the chairwoman of the Republican National Committee, Ronna McDaniel, repeatedly deflected or responded dishonestly when asked about the president’s flouting of public health guidelines and other matters.

Ms. McDaniel said on CBS’s “Face the Nation” that voters were “frustrated by the corrupt debate commission, that they would cancel a second debate.” The commission did not cancel the debate; it announced that it would be virtual to avoid the possibility of coronavirus transmission, and Mr. Trump withdrew.

Ms. Trump, asked on “Fox News Sunday” why she and others in the president’s family had disregarded the mask requirement at the first debate, said no officials had told them to put masks on, even though there is video of an official doing so.

And Eric Trump said on ABC’s “This Week” that his father had received a coronavirus vaccine, which he did not; he received treatments for the virus. He also said falsely that Joseph R. Biden Jr. and Kamala Harris, the Democratic nominees for president and vice president, wanted to defund the police.

He and Ms. Trump both insisted that the administration had done its due diligence by testing attendees at White House events, including the Rose Garden ceremony for Judge Amy Coney Barrett, the president’s Supreme Court nominee — even though the tests it relied on weren’t meant to be used that way, and even though health experts’ conclusion that Judge Barrett’s nomination was a superspreader event showed the ineffectiveness of that strategy.

When pressed on these and other points, Mr. Trump and Ms. McDaniel berated their interviewers for what they said was insufficient focus on the violence at racial justice protests and on Mr. Biden’s refusal to say whether he would support adding justices to the Supreme Court.

“This is all the media should be focusing on,” Ms. McDaniel said of the court-packing issue, deflecting from a question about whether the president would resume in-person fund-raisers after his illness and, if so, whether his campaign would require masks.

Mr. Biden’s deputy campaign manager, Kate Bedingfield, was in fact questioned sharply on court-packing on CNN’s “State of the Union.”

“This is a hypothetical that they want to throw out right now to distract from the fact that they are trying to ram through a nominee — who, as I said, is going to change the makeup of the court — against the will of the American people,” she said, adding that Mr. Biden’s focus was on preventing Republicans from confirming Judge Barrett, though there is little Democrats can do to prevent that.

When pressed further, Ms. Bedingfield said: “He’s probably answered this question 15 times over the course of the last week. The answer is, I am not going to play Donald Trump’s game. I am not going to allow the terms of this debate to shift to a hypothetical that assumes, by the way, that the Democrats are going to lose here. That’s what’s at the core of this argument they’re making. It assumes that we’re going to lose. Vice President Biden doesn’t accept that.”

Credit…Lynsey Weatherspoon for The New York Times

After contracting the coronavirus in March, Michael Reagan lost all memory of his 12-day vacation in Paris, even though the trip was just a few weeks earlier.

Several weeks after Erica Taylor recovered from her Covid-19 symptoms of nausea and cough, she became confused and forgetful, failing to even recognize her own car, the only Toyota Prius in her apartment complex’s parking lot.

It’s becoming known as Covid brain fog: troubling cognitive symptoms that can include memory loss, confusion, difficulty focusing, dizziness and grasping for everyday words. Increasingly, Covid survivors say brain fog is impairing their ability to work and function normally.

“There are thousands of people who have that,” said Dr. Igor Koralnik, chief of neuro-infectious disease at Northwestern Medicine in Chicago, who has already seen hundreds of survivors at a post-Covid clinic he leads. “The impact on the work force that’s affected is going to be significant.”

Scientists aren’t sure what causes brain fog, which varies widely and affects even people who became only mildly physically ill from Covid-19 and had no previous medical conditions. M.R.I. scans don’t indicate brain damage.

Leading theories are that the fog arises when the body’s immune response to the virus doesn’t shut down or from inflammation in blood vessels leading to the brain.

Confusion, delirium and other types of altered mental function, called encephalopathy, have occurred during hospitalization for Covid-19 respiratory problems, and a study found that such patients needed longer hospitalizations, had higher mortality rates and often couldn’t manage daily activities right after hospitalization.

Dr. Serena Spudich, chief of neurological infections and global neurology at Yale School of Medicine, spoke to the possibility that inflammation in blood vessels, or cells lining the vessels, was involved. Inflammatory molecules, released in effective immune responses, “can also be sort of toxins, particularly to the brain,” she said.

Tiny strokes may cause some symptoms. Other possible causes are autoimmune reactions “when antibodies mistakenly attack nerve cells,” Dr. Spudich said.

Credit…Noah Seelam/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The world recorded more than one million new cases of the coronavirus in the last three days, as one-day records for new infections were set in France, Russia, Nepal and several U.S. states, and as India surpassed seven million total cases.

The number of new cases is growing faster than ever. Deaths and hospitalizations in some countries are also beginning to rise. The pandemic has sickened more than 37 million people and more than one million people have died globally, according to a New York Times database.

A hot spot has emerged in Britain, which has suffered the highest number of virus-related deaths in Europe. Spain and France, which set a record on Friday with 20,339 new cases and then again on Saturday with 26,896, are experiencing a second wave of infections. Russia on Saturday also set a one-day record of 12,673 new cases. Argentina, which has seen more than 90,000 new cases in the past seven days, is a problem zone in South America, as are Brazil and Colombia.

However, the United States is one of the largest contributors to the surging global tally. On Saturday, the country recorded more than 590 new deaths and more than 51,000 new cases. That tally included single-day case records in five states: Alaska, Indiana, Minnesota, Missouri and Oklahoma. All of those states except Oklahoma announced more cases this week than in any other seven-day stretch of the pandemic, as did Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota and Utah.

Uncontrolled outbreaks continue to spread in the Upper Midwest and Rocky Mountains, and the Northeast is seeing early signs of a resurgence. In Wisconsin, a long-dormant field hospital is being readied for patients. In New York, officials fear clusters in some neighborhoods and suburbs could spread.

Still, the number of new cases nationally remains below the levels seen in late July, when the country averaged more than 66,000 per day. Deaths, though still well below their peak spring levels, have averaged around 700 per day in October. That is far more than the toll in early July.

The new highs in the United States come one week after President Trump himself tested positive for the virus and was hospitalized. Though he has returned to the White House and said repeatedly that he feels “great,” he has continued to play down the effectiveness of masks and routinely sidelined his own public health experts.

Globally, the United States has led the ranking of nations with the highest number of coronavirus infections since late May. However, the spread of the virus in India — which has roughly four times the population of the United States — has put the country on course to overtake the United States. On Sunday, India reported 74,383 new infections, taking its total past seven million, while the United States has more than 7.7 million cases.

Credit…Clive Brunskill/Getty Images

In a sports year wildly disrupted by the pandemic, an upended Grand Slam season concluded on Sunday with one of the most predictable sights in tennis, if not all of sports: Rafael Nadal winning the men’s singles final of the French Open.

Never mind that the tournament finished in October instead of June. Or that it began weeks after the United States Open, which is supposed to be the final Slam, and that it ended as the N.B.A. was playing its 2019-20 championship series in the same month it was supposed to begin the 2020-21 season.

Few things are as reliable, even metronomic, as Nadal’s sovereignty on the red-clay courts of Roland Garros, the tennis complex on the fringe of Paris’s Bois de Bologne. He defeated Novak Djokovic, 6-0, 6-2, 7-5, to win his 13th French Open championship, expanding his record total in the event and equaling Roger Federer’s record of 20 Grand Slam men’s singles titles.

The day before, the women’s singles title was won by an unseeded 19-year-old, Iga Swiatek, who became the first Grand Slam singles champion from Poland.

Nadal, 34, who has never lost a French Open final, now has a 100-2 overall record in the tournament since making his smash-hit debut as a 19-year-old in clam-diggers and a sleeveless shirt in 2005. His 13 titles are five more than any other male singles player has claimed in a specific Grand Slam.

Long before Sunday’s victory, though, Nadal had already captured the spirit of this often-gloomy edition of the French Open.

Much of the time, the weather was cold and gray, the grounds ghostly quiet. The players were all stuck in a hotel meant to cocoon them from the virus, and some doubted whether it was worthwhile.

“I’m going to be honest here,” Ons Jabeur of Tunisia, the 35th-ranked woman in the world, said in the tournament’s early days. “I was like, ‘Why are we playing?’”

And then a voice — the voice of this tournament — rang out on Philippe Chatrier Court.

“The feeling is more sad than usual,” Nadal said during an interview after his first-round victory. “Maybe that’s what it needs to feel like. It needs to be sad. Many people in the world are suffering.”

His words resonated with Jabeur. “If he’s a champion and he doesn’t complain,” she said, “I mean, who I am to complain about it right now?”

Credit…Adam Hunger/Associated Press

The National Football League has indefinitely postponed Monday’s game between the Denver Broncos and the New England Patriots, the latest reshuffling of the league’s schedule to accommodate the rash of positive tests for the coronavirus.

The N.F.L. had already pushed back the game from Sunday to Monday after Stephon Gilmore, the team’s star defensive back, tested positive. The team returned to practice on Saturday, but another presumptive positive test on Sunday forced the league to act before the Broncos left Denver for Foxborough, Mass.

The league has not said when or if the game will be made up. Because this week will now serve as the bye week for both teams, there are no other openings on their schedule unless other games are moved, or the league adds an additional week to the season for makeup games.

The Patriots were originally scheduled for a bye in Week 6, and the Broncos had a bye in Week 8.

The Tennessee Titans, who have been grappling with the biggest outbreak in the league, shut down their team facility on Sunday after another staff member tested positive, according to the N.F.L. Network, throwing in doubt the team’s upcoming game against the Buffalo Bills, already pushed back to Tuesday.

The Titans have reported two dozen positive cases among players, coaches and staff members in the past several weeks. The league has already pushed the Titans-Steelers game back three weeks, to Oct. 25.

The N.F.L. told teams this week they would risk severe penalties, including the loss of draft picks, stiff fines and potentially the forfeiture of games if they did not follow the league’s safety protocols.

Credit…Melissa Golden for The New York Times

Without in-person company meetings during the pandemic, many chief executives have become regulars at a new type of meeting: the family dinner. For some of the busiest people in the world, the new normal has reshaped life at home.

John Foley, the chief executive and founder of Peloton, and his wife, Jill, a vice president at Peloton, used to leave the house each morning by 7:45 a.m. and not come home until 7:30 p.m. By then, their nanny had already fed and readied their two children — an 8-year-old daughter and a 12-year-old son — for bed.

In March, everything changed. Not only were the Foleys having dinner together every night, they were together all of the time.

Mr. Foley said he credited family dinners for helping his daughter become more mature. “Her personality has blossomed,” he said, “and that’s partly because we’re together as a family, learning from each other.”

Homayoun Hatami, a managing partner at McKinsey & Company in Paris, surveyed chief executives for a report on leadership during the pandemic and found that many, like Mr. Foley, had begun to set aside time for family dinners.

Decades of research have shown the benefits of regular family meals for children across the socioeconomic spectrum. Children who eat with their parents have bigger vocabularies, receive higher grades and have lower rates of obesity.

Sara Blakely, the chief executive and founder of Spanx, which sells sculpting bodysuits and pants, said her family of six now eats dinner together every night, up from three to four nights a week before the pandemic. Spending more time at home has given her children new insights into who she is not only as their mother, but also as the creator of a business empire, she said.

She realized recently that her children had not known she was an inventor, with several patents in her name.

“They were like, ‘Well, what do you mean you’re an inventor?’ They think of an inventor as only a man — as being Einstein or Edison,” she said.

Credit…Heather Ainsworth for The New York Times

Even as rising coronavirus cases forced other colleges to halt in-person classes or send students home, Syracuse University managed to keep the virus at bay, with only a handful of students testing positive since classes began in the fall.

That was, campus officials say, until someone traveled to a nearby city and brought the virus back to campus, where it spread rapidly at parties. Syracuse, a big private college in Central New York, now has more than 75 active cases, including 68 people who tested positive in the last four days.

The sudden rise highlights how quickly the virus can spread in a college environment, even as many students take pains to protect themselves and their classmates.

It’s not how Ava Notkin was expecting her last semester to play out. The senior said on Saturday that she was exhausted from the health anxiety that pervaded the campus, making it hard to focus on homework, exams and other aspects of college life that would, under normal circumstances, constitute the bulk of a student’s stress.

“I feel like I’m teetering on the edge,” said Ms. Notkin, 21, a marketing management major from Pittsburgh. “We’re always in this risky gray area.”

Ms. Notkin and other students have expressed frustration with students holding parties that officials say are leading to new infections.

“Everyone just needs to realize that this is not our normal college experience anymore,” she said.

Still, students and campus administrators say they recognize the desire to socialize, particularly for those who are just getting to know their peers or are spending their last year in the same city. The campus has organized a series of virtual lectures, events — “Zumba Party at Home,” anyone? — and other programming for the campus. Ms. Notkin said she had safely enjoyed the region through outdoor activities like kayaking and hiking with friends.

Back in August, a gathering of students alarmed university officials enough that they issued a scolding letter warning the campus could be shut down before the semester even began.

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